Pinnacle Sociology & Anthropology

March 2019, Vol.3 (2).

© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research Article


Socioeconomic Impacts Of Mining-Induced Resettlements In Peru: Differences In Age And Gender

Camilo León Castro

Ecole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales,

Accepted 15 March, 2019; Available Online 25 March, 2019.


The expansion of mining activities in Peru has resulted in the displacement of a growing number of rural populations. Although some companies adopt the World Bank policies for resettlement, the lack of productive lands in the Peruvian Andes and the absence of legal mechanisms and policies to protect affected people lead to many communities being dispersed in both rural and urban environments without consistent assistance during the process of adaptation to the new environment. The subsequent impact is the weakening of previous socioeconomic organisations without the building of the necessary cultural resources to adapt to the new circumstances. However, these impacts are unequally experienced by community members. This study examines the differential impacts of resettlement on different segments of the population, divided by age and gender. It explores how key resources, especially land, education and jobs, are differently controlled by men and women as well as young adults and elders. Findings demonstrate that segments such as the young educated can take advantage of the compensation schemes offered by mines. Jobs and business opportunities in mining nearby areas can be appropriated by male leaders and many of them see these resettlements as opportunities for self-development. For the elders, especially women, displacement and land loss takes out a key source for their subsistence. For them, resettlement under a land by land approach is fundamental only if complementary infrastructure and services are provided to serve their needs.

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